A Framework for National Guard Employment in the Homeland - Guard History as National and State Asset, Deploying in Large-Scale Complex Event, New Madrid Seismic Zone Earthquake, Civil Defense Support
By: U.S. Government, U.S. Military, Department of Defense (DoD), Paul Jara
Publication Date: 2019-06-16
Number of pages: 130
This study explores the doctrinal divide among homeland defense (HD), homeland security (HS), and defense support to civil authorities (DSCA) and questions whether these doctrinal spaces are adequately instructive to National Guard domestic action. The study explores the Department of Defense's (DoD) important contributions to HD and DSCA and the Guard's historical and contemporary roles in HD and HS. This work proposes that the DoD's reticence to describe its actions as HS creates a doctrinal void for the Guard. This study advances DSCA as theoretically and practically useful for the DoD but concurrently contravenes core principles of domestic response, which is practically inadequate for domestic Guard action. By exploring military action in large-scale, complex disasters and national special security events, this study provides insight into the legal, policy, and fiscal challenges and solutions for clearer domestic doctrine. The study explores whether the Guard can be better employed in disasters by adjudicating matters of defense over security and engaging in a federalism conversation aimed at discriminating between disasters that are "national matters" and those that are "state matters."This compilation includes a reproduction of the 2019 Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community.National Guards operate within their states under the governors' direction, can be activated in state active duty, and in this capacity, are funded from the state's budget. The DoD operates at the request of lead federal agencies supporting states' requests for assistance, and DoD forces are employed in accordance with DSCA regulations—from the federal budget. However, when National Guard forces from an unaffected state are employed in support of an affected state, the authorities, funding solutions, and federal and state demarcation become less clear. Hurricane response actions in 2017 demonstrate that senior emergency managers from the DoD and the National Guard are ill-equipped to adjudicate these doctrinal lines. The adjudication debate rested on a central question: Were the disasters a national concern and, therefore, a federal responsibility, or were the responses independent state matters? This then-unanswered question has implications for what doctrinal space National Guard forces should occupy.
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